The House voted 222-212 on Tuesday to approve procedural legislation allowing the Senate to raise the debt ceiling.
Illinois Rep. Adam Kinzinger voted as the lone Republican in support of the bill.
At least 10 Senate Republicans will need to join Democrats to clear the required 60-vote threshold for the legislation to pass.
The Senate increased the debt limit temporarily in October, but it is unclear if the measure will pass with Republican support again, the New York Times reports.
Sen. John Cornyn (R-Texas) said, "To have Democrats raise the debt ceiling and be held politically accountable for racking up more debt is my goal, and this helps us accomplish that."